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PLMForManagingRecyclability-Duta-UofM.pptx
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时间:2023-01-04

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PLMForManagingRecyclability Duta UofM
Using PLM for managing substance regulations and meeting recyclability targets Dr.Deba Dutta Professor of Mechanical Engineering Director,PLM Alliance University of Michigan,Ann Arbor Frequently in the news“Over 130,000 PCs are replaced every day in America alone,and only a tenth or so are recycled”-Recycling old computers The Economist(27th Jan 2005)“(EPA)officials were moving to impose stricter requirements in the 1991 lead and copper regulations starting next year,because of problems with lead in drinking water in Washington,D.C.”-A move towards stricter lead monitoring The New York Times(8th Mar 2005)Source:White,et.al.Journal of Cleaner Production Life cycle of a product Presentation Overview Emergence of product end-of-life related regulations Trends and concerns for industry The EOL research project A systems approach within the PLM framework Some initial results Summary Environmental concerns EOL Increased waste due to abandoned products Hazardous/toxic substances Five pounds of lead in every CRT monitor 30mg of Hg in every fluorescent tube(4ft)Halogenated flame retardants in plastics Lost resources Est.loss of resources from electrical equipment waste in Europe in 1988:2.4 million tonnes of ferrous metal 1.2 million tonnes of plastic 652,000 tonnes of copper Environmental concerns EOL Expensive recycling or disposal Need for specialised processes Variety of products no economies of scale High costs of safe disposal Decreasing landfill space Stringent legal requirements-Expensive to build safe landfills Close-down of“unsafe”landfills NIMBY(not in my back yard)Extended Producer Responsibility(EPR)Transfer of financial(sometimes operational)responsibility of EOL treatment to producers Targets for recovery and recycling Bans/Restrictions on the use of hazardous substances Extended Producer Responsibility(EPR)Laws and Regulations Europe ELV,WEEE,RoHS USA RCRA Japan SHARL,Waste Treatment Law Taiwan Resource Recycling and Reuse Act,Waste Disposal Act Voluntary/Co-regulatory schemes Australia&NZ-Product Stewardship For Oil Program,National Packaging Covenant Canada AB Fluorescent Bulb and Computer Recycling Program EPR What is at stake?Big money!Costs for compliance American electronics industry estimates for WEEE compliance-$140 to$900 million European estimates for compliance with ELV Directive-20 to 150 per vehicle Penalties for non-compliance In December 2001,Dutch officials seized more than 1.3 million imported Playstations-excess cadmium in the consoles cables In Taiwan What is at stake?Taiwan electronics industry Annual exports to EU US$8 billion 30 thousand companies 5%WEEE compliant 3%RoHS compliant Directives come into force in 2006 Taiwan auto component suppliers automotive ignition modules,alternator components,voltage regulators,rectifiers,and diodes,lamps,locks,switches Supply to local industry,China,after-parts in Europe/US EPR trends by industry Electronics/Home Appliances Industry WEEE/RoHS directives in force More and more products being regulated Aerospace Industry Military/defense exemptions for WEEE Safe disposal requirements applicable Cd/CrVI coatings,recycling of composites Longer lifecycles plan for future regulations EPR trends by industry Automobile Industry ELV includes bans on substances listed in RoHS Allowances for certain uses of heavy metals Existing regulations on recovery of batteries,tires Consumer Packaged Goods Targets for recovery and incineration of packaging waste Targets for OEMs to reduce packaging waste OEM responsibilities Ensure compliance to material/substance bans and restrictions Collect,Organise,and Report-materials and substance information Supply information about dismantling product,isolation of hazardous substances,recycling,and safe disposal of components for each product configuration to ATFs OEM responsibilities Establish partnerships with authorised treatment facilities(ATFs)for managing treatment responsibility of their EOL products Obtain“certificate of disposal”from the ATFs supplier OEM Retailer consumer Authorised treatment facility Material flow$Many difficulties faced by OEMs Unclear/changing regulations Different limits in different countries How to minimise delays/change costs?How to ensure compliance during design?Collect information from various vendors Many difficulties faced by Suppliers Confusing regulations and restrictions Different requirements for different OEMs Different reporting requirements and formats Design changes for changing regulations or requirements Insufficient opportunity for feedback to OEM or optimisation of product Stakeholders in the EOL activities Stakeholders Interests/Concerns OEMs Compliance in parts and product Ease of validation and reporting/certification Profitability of production and EOL operations Suppliers Clarity of specifications and requirements Flexibility/opportunity to optimise part ATFs Clear EOL treatment strategy and instructions Ease of EOL operations and reporting Stakeholders in the EOL act

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